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Evaluation of the toxicological effect of diclofenac on internal organs on experimental rats

Project proposal

Diclofenac is a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that belongs to the class of phenylacetic acids. Although diclofenac is known for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, it can also cause toxicity to internal organs such as the liver and kidneys. Therefore, it is proposed to conduct a study on the toxic effect of diclofenac on internal organs in rats. The purpose of this study would be to assess the extent of diclofenac-induced toxicity on different organs like the brain, eye, lung, heart, liver, stomach, pancreas, spleen, kidney, bladder, reproductive system, bone, skin, and muscle in rats, which are organs susceptible to drug-induced toxicity. The study will involve administering a toxic dose of diclofenac to groups of rats and monitoring their organ morphology changes. Histopathological analysis of organ tissues will also be conducted to observe for any morphological changes or abnormalities. Additionally, the study will investigate diclofenac-induced dysfunction by magnetic resonance image. The findings of this proposed study will contribute to a better understanding of the harmful effects of diclofenac on internal organs, which can inform more informed decisions regarding its safe use and the development of possible interventions to mitigate toxicity. Furthermore, the investigation of diclofenac-induced toxicity mechanisms may enable the identification of potential biomarkers that can serve as early indicators of organ damage. This proposed study will be conducted following ethical guidelines and protocols established by the appropriate regulatory bodies.
Review title: 

Review on Diclofenac Toxicities in Different Organs

Abstract:
Introduction: Diclofenac is an over-the-counter (OTC) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that works through non-selective inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme, thereby inhibiting the release of prostaglandins. Known for its efficacy in alleviating inflammation, pain, and fever symptoms, concerns have arisen regarding the potential toxicity of Diclofenac. Its toxicity can cause a wide variety of adverse effects, ranging from self-limiting side effects that disappear after treatment cessation to an increased risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases and strokes. Determining the threshold dose that distinguishes between mild, self-limiting side effects and more severe adverse effects poses a major challenge in diclofenac toxicity research. Method: This article reviewed various doses and different organ toxicities observed in animal and human studies using diclofenac. Aim: Our objective is to define the toxicities in fourteen organs and organize them into different categories as animal toxicities, human toxicities, and teratogenicity through pathological changes. Conclusion: By searching different databases and collecting the observed toxicities, we have concluded that the primary affected organs are the stomach, liver, and kidney. However, there is limited knowledge on the toxic effects on the brain, heart, lungs, spleen, eye, bone, bone marrow, blood, and testes, while rarely available data for the pancreas, bladder, skin, muscle, and uterus.
Article title: 

Writing stage

Abstract:
Writing stage

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